How To Use Parenthetical Citations: APA, MLA, Vancouver

Regardless of the type of paper you are writing, if you use parenthetical references, you will almost certainly use parenthetical citations. Parenthetical references are used to credit the source of a quote, paraphrase, or other borrowed material that you use in your paper. They are also used to credit a source that is referred to in the text. In general, you should use parenthetical citations for all borrowed material, whether it is in your text or footnotes or endnotes. Parenthetical citations are very similar to in-text citations. They are both parenthetical (that is, in the text but not in parentheses). Parenthetical citations, however, are used when you use a quote, paraphrase, or other borrowed material.

While most students are aware of how to use parenthetical citations in their papers, it is easy to get confused when trying to decide which style is appropriate for your class. Thankfully, the three most common styles, APA, MLA, and Vancouver are all fairly similar. The main differences are that the MLA style uses a page number in the in-text citation, the Vancouver style uses a page number and a publication year, and the APA style doesn’t require you to include a page number.

Whether they are academics, researchers, university students or graduate students, all academic writers need to know how to use citation hooks correctly. Citations in this format are usually introduced when you directly quote or paraphrase another author’s ideas or statements in your research paper or academic essay.

This article explains how to correctly cite sources in a research article, essay or academic paper. In particular, you will learn important information about the use of parenthetical citations in the MLA, APA, and Vancouver formats for citations and references, as well as best practices for citing in the text.

What are the quotes in parentheses?

Citing original sources in parentheses in your text is called in-text parenthetical citation. The reader can immediately see where your information comes from, so you don’t need to add footnotes or endnotes.

Importance of bracketed citations

Quotations in parentheses are important because they honor the original statement or research of the author or speaker in the text. This allows the reader to understand the voice of the cited author, the date of publication, and the source of the information.

When the reference is placed directly in the text, the reader should not check the footnotes at the bottom of each page or the list of citations at the end of the article. This keeps the reader captivated while providing the necessary resources.

When quotation marks are enclosed in parentheses

By citing your sources, you ensure that you are not plagiarizing other authors’ work. That’s why you have to put parentheses when you quote:

  • Referring to the work of another author
  • To insert a citation from the cited source
  • Summary or paraphrase of someone else’s work

Benefits of using quotation marks in parentheses

References in parentheses are often used in formal research papers and manuscripts to indicate where the information was found. Proper citation can have a huge impact on the credibility of an article.

Here are some of the benefits of using bracketed references:

1) Quotes in brackets or in the text show that you have given credit to those who deserve it by acknowledging their work in your own research.

2) You give readers more details about how you discovered certain content or information, which can be useful for future research.

3) It demonstrates the professionalism required of academic papers as it shows that the author is conscientious, credible and familiar with the relevant research.

Two different types of quotation in the text

When using quotes in the text, in any format, there are two methods: parenthetical and narrative.

In the case of a citation in brackets, all relevant information (author’s name, year of publication, page number) is included in the citation in the text, which is placed at the end of the sentence.

The Korean War technically ended with an armistice, not a treaty (Kim, 2019) or (Kim, 2019, p. 12).

In the case of a narrative quotation, the reference to the author of the work quoted is part of the written sentence itself. Write the name of the first or principal author with et al followed by the year in parentheses. This feature is especially useful if you want to add your own comment or review.

According to Kim et al. (2019), the Korean diaspora can be divided into different economic and cultural factors.

Read more: Guidelines on citation for researchers : Citing authors, usage, etc.

Use of bracketed citations in APA format

A parenthetical citation in APA format consists of the following elements:

  • Name of author
  • Year of publication
  • Page number

Format in brackets:

The modern economy in South Korea has developed as a discipline since 1960 (Kim, 2019).

Narrative format:

Kim et al. (2019) recently found in a survey of East Asian economists that modern economics has developed as a discipline in South Korea since 1960.

Eligible notes for cross-reference in the text APA

There are several situations to consider when using a quotation mark in parentheses, such as. B. if the author’s name is not mentioned.

If the author is not found, the title of the work and the year of publication should be given according to the format given above. If the title in quotes is exceptionally long, it can be shortened in the entry in the text.

Tools for ABS style

Official APA Style Guide

Wordvice APA Citation Quick Reference Guide

Wordvice APA 6. Quotation generator

Wordvice APA 7 Citation Generator

How to use parentheses in MLA

Citations in brackets in the MLA format are very similar to citations in the APA format. However, there are two important differences between the MLA and APA formats:

  1. Enter the page number, not the date of publication.
  2. there is no comma between the page number and the author’s last name.

Include the first few words of the title of the work or website if there is no author. Do not use p. or pn. to indicate pages and do not put a comma, even if there are multiple authors:

The tourism industry is an important part of Korea’s GDP (Kim 15)…(Kim and Lee 15)…(Kim et al. 15).

MLA style sources

Official MLA Style Guide

Wordvice Short MLA Style Guide

Wordvice MLA 8 Quote Generator

How to use quotes in parentheses in Vancouver

Vancouver-style parenthetical citations should be numbered (superscript or parentheses) on either side of the author’s name or study. Each citation should be given a unique number, which is then listed in the bibliography at the end of the manuscript. If you cite a source more than once, use the same citation number as for the first post in brackets that follow.

Park et al. (4) reported that more than 90% of Koreans own a smartphone (p. 552).

Vancouver Style

The Official Vancouver Style Guide

Wordvice Vancouver Style Guide

Wordvice Vancouver style quote generator

This source has been very much helpful in doing our research. Read more about in-text citations apa and let us know what you think.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you parenthetically cite in APA?

An APA reference list entry for a book typically includes the author, title, and date when the work was published. Use the author’s last name and initials to identify the creator of a work in a sentence. Parenthetical references are used to cite sources (books, journals, reports, and so on) within a sentence. Although it may seem counterintuitive, parenthetical citations are common in APA format. In fact, the majority of your citations in APA format will be parenthetical.

The citations you’ll include in parentheses are generally short citations, usually no more than three or four words long. Looking for more examples? Check out “Puzzle Pursuits: 50 Writing Exercises to Stretch Your Mind and Stimulate Your Creativity,” by Constance Hale. The book is full of challenging writing exercises for all sorts of writing, from fiction to blog posts, from business to tech, and everything in between. Most of the exercises have an accompanying example, so you can see how they’re done.

How do you do parenthetical citations in MLA?

Parenthetical citations—those little parenthetical author and date entries in the body of a paper—are extremely common in academic writing, and are used in many different styles. The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is especially common in English and literature programs. As with all academic writing, the citations you use are important, so here’s a quick guide to doing parenthetical citations in the MLA style.

Parenthetical citations are a great way to credit your sources while also making it clear which information is theirs and which information is yours. (For more on how to create citations, see the guide on  our blog.)  When you create citations for your research paper, you follow the Modern Language Association’s (MLA’s) format for parenthetical citations. (In fact, MLA is the most common style used in all academic writing.)

How do you do an in-text citation for Vancouver?

Here’s a breakdown of how to cite a book in the Vancouver system: Book with one author: Author’s last name, first name. Book title in italics, followed by city of publication. Publisher, year of publication. Vancouver, BC: Self-published, 2013. Print. One of the most annoying parts of any research project is writing up a bibliography and making sure you have a cite for each source.

The task is made even more difficult if you have multiple sources from one source, since you need to cite them separately. Fortunately, it is not an impossible job, and there are some simple ways to collate your different sources.


About the Author: Prateek

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